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The Long Weaving Process.


Once the yarns are spun and dyed, the weaving process begins.
The weaving of pile rugs is a difficult and tedious process which, depending on the quality and size of the rug, may take anywhere from a few months to several years to complete.To begin making a rug, one needs a foundation consisting of warps strong, thick threads of cotton, wool or silk which run the length of the rug and wefts similar threads which pass under and over the warps from one side to the other. The warps on either side of the rug are normally combined into one or more cables of varying thickness that are overcast to form the selvedge.

                                                   

 Weaving normally begins by passing a number of wefts through the bottom warp to form a base to start from. Loosely piled knots of dyed wool or silk are then tied around consecutive sets of adjacent warps to create the intricate patterns in the rug. As more rows are tied to the foundation, these knots become the pile of the rug. Between each row of knots, one or more shots of weft are passed to tightly pack down and secure the rows.

Depending on the fineness of the weave, the quality of the materials and the expertise of the weavers, the knot count of a hand made rug can vary anywhere from 16 to 550 knots per square inch.

When the rug is completed, the warp ends form the fringes that may be weft-faced, braided, tasseled, or secured in some other manner.

 

Looms

Looms do not vary greatly in essential details, but they do vary in size and sophistication. The main technical requirement of the loom is to provide the correct tension and the means of dividing the warps into alternate sets of leaves.

                                                            

A shedding device allows the weaver to pass wefts through crossed and uncrossed warps, instead of laboriously threading the weft in and out of the warps.                        

Tools

In order to operate the loom, the weaver needs a number of essential tools: a knife for cutting the yarn as the knots are tied; a comb-like instrument for packing downThe wefts;

                                                                                                        and a pair of shears for trimming the pile.In Tabriz the knife is combined with a hook to tie the knots which lets the weavers produce very fine rugs, as their fingers alone are too thick to do the job.  

                               

 

Materials (wool , Silk , cotton)

Wool is the most common material for carpets but cotton is frequently used for the foundation of city and workshop carpets. There are a wide variety in types of wool used for weaving. Those of which include Kork wool, Manchester wool, and in some cases even camel hair wool. Silk carpets date back to at least the sixteenth century in Sabzevar and the seventeenth century in Kashan and Yazd.

Silk carpets are less common than wool carpets since silk is more expensive and less durable; they tend to increase in value with age. Due to their rarity, value and lack of durability, silk carpets are often displayed on the wall like tapestries rather than being used as floor coverings.  Produced by the larva of a species of moth commonly called the silkworm, silk has been cultivated in Iran. The finest silk for rug making traditionally comes from an area around the Caspian Sea. This region produces a type referred to as Rasht Silk, which is regarded as the best in the world.
 Silk fibres can also be used to make the warp, weft and the pile of a carpet.

Cotton  fibre has an important role in the carpet weaving industry and it has seen increased use for weaving the warp and weft of the carpet. Moths are not attracted to cotton, if the warp and weft of carpets are made of cotton; they only damage the pile without causing any holes .It is much easier to create a new layer of pile on the lattice of the warp and weft that has been left intact. Cotton fibre is not good for making the pile of a rug; instead due to its strength and inflexibility it is suitable for making the warp and weft.

 

Dyeing
A handmade (hand-knotted) rug dyed with natural dye and hand spun wool will not only fit easily fit any decor, but it will enhance any interior design. It adds to the natural beauty of the wood or bamboo flooring, brings warmth and gives life to any older furniture, elevating their value to almost that of an antique furniture. With all that value and beauty they add to our homes, Persian and Oriental rugs are the least valued work of art, considering the amount of time and love put in each one of them, comparing to an oil painting that will take maybe a few days or even weeks to accomplish.

                                                        


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